Stocks And Spirals: The Herbert J. Clarke Story


"These international meetings of sportsmen and sportswomen are some of the few good things that seem to be left in this tottery old world, and they are possibly some of the best ways of helping to put it in order again." - Herbert James Clarke, speech at the International Meeting At Davos, February 1950

Born April 10, 1879 in London borough of Lambeth, Herbert James 'H.J.' Clarke was the son of Julia (Horne) and Alfred George Clarke. He was a middle child and his father was a well-to-do member of the London Stock Exchange. The family, who resided in the elegant East Sussex ward of at St Leonards-on-Sea, were parishioners of the Church of England.


Herbert took up figure skating as a young man and was a regular at Prince's Skating Club in Knightsbridge at the turn of the century. At sixteen stone - over two hundred and twenty pounds - Herbert didn't exactly have the typical 'skater's physique'. Mentored by Bernard Adams, he developed a keen interest in both English and Continental Style skating, testing in both styles, and spent many hours on rollers as well. He earned the National Skating Association's gold medal in the International (Continental) Style and won a junior competition at Prince's in the spring of 1908, defeating Arthur Cumming, who would go on to win the silver medal in the special figures at the first Olympic Games to include figure skating later that year. In 1914 and 1924, he won the Bandy Club Cup in St. Moritz, being a regular at the Swiss skating resorts during the long English winters. He also finished third in a competition for junior skaters held in conjunction with the 1914 World Championships for women's and pairs.

When Freda Whitaker opened a small ice rink on Hertford Street in Mayfair in 1924, Herbert was there every day performing every figure on the ISU schedule. In his only appearance in a major international senior competition, the 1924 Winter Olympic Games in Chamonix, he placed a disappointing tenth out of eleven entries.

Gwendolyn Lycett and Herbert Clarke at Prince's Skating Club

Off the ice, Herbert was a jobber with the London Stock Exchange who devoted just as much time to do golfing in the summer as he did skating in winter. In April 1906, he married Clara Kathleen Vera Kennedy. The couple settled on Hornton Street in Kensington, hiring four servants to take care of them and their young daughter Kathleen. Less than ten years later, Herbert left his wife and daughter and took up residence at the Homeside Wimbledon in Surrey. Clara was finally granted her divorce petition on February 1, 1915. During The Great War, Herbert served as a driver with the Royal Army Service Corps.

Photo courtesy "Skating" magazine

Though he was a talented athlete, Herbert's most important contributions to the figure skating world were off the ice. He served as the chairman of the Figure Committee of the National Skating Association and for a good many years. For many years, he was only one of three judges in Great Britain qualified to preside over the the Association's First Class Test. Along with Guy Campbell, Horatio Tertuliano Torromé, James Henry Johnson and Herbert Ramon Yglesias, he assisted Walter Stanton in adapting International Style of figure skating to rollers.

Henry Hainwright Howe and Herbert James Clarke at the 1928 Winter Olympic Games in St. Moritz. Photo courtesy "Skating Through The Years".

Herbert judged at his first World Championships in 1923 and sat on countless pre-World War II judging panels that awarded World or European titles to Sonja Henie, the Brunet's, Karl Schäfer, Herma Szabo, Cecilia Colledge, Megan Taylor, Graham Sharp, Maxi Herber and Ernst Baier and others. He was also a judge at the 1928 and 1932 Olympic Games and referee of countless British Championships. In her book "Advanced Figure Skating", Maribel Vinson Owen recalled a hilarious judging story about Herbert thusly: "The most uproarious loop-change-loop incident in skating history occurred at the 1932 Winter Olympics at Lake Placid. It was time for Suzanne Davis of the American team to skate the figure, starting forward on the right foot, and she picked a piece of ice right beside the hockey dasher. The judges ranged themselves at strategic points here and there, while H. J. Clarke, the revered English judge... decided that he could see best and at the same time take the weight off his over-worked feet by sitting on the fence just below Sue's starting center. Now Mr. Clarke, as all who know him will agree, is one of the more substantial of the world's skaters. Everyone who has ever seen him grinding out his rockers or laboring through his loop-change-loops on the ice of the London Ice Club invariably marvels at the dexterity of a man who weighs well over 14 stone and is built in proportion. Sue started her figure and laid out her first complete tracing. She was just on her way through the left-foot retracing when there was a sudden loud crash, a gasp of dismay from the spectators, and then, after a few seconds, bursts of such uncontrollable laughter - as a serious school figure competition has never known before - or since. Intent on Sue's efforts, Mr. Clarke had unexpectedly overbalanced and gone backward head over heels into the hockey box, where there wasn’t even a convenient chair to break his fall! The sight of such a weighty man doing a sudden back somersault off the fence at first caused instant consternation; when he ruefully but laughingly picked himself up and the crowd saw no damage was done, wave after wave of hilarity burst over the whole arena. The center of attention, however, quickly shifted from Mr. Clarke back to Sue, and she became the real star of the incident. For throughout all the uproar - and it was tremendous - she had never once so much as glanced up. She kept her attention riveted on the figure she was skating, and not until she had put down all six lines and completely finished one of the best loop-change-loop diagrams she had ever skated in her life did she allow herself a flicker of interest in what had happened. When I asked her later how she had managed such superhuman concentration, she replied that she knew if she once glanced up she'd be lost and she didn’t know whether the referee would count helpless laughter as an adequate excuse for starting a figure over again!"

Herbert Clarke (sitting on the barrier again) at Richmond Ice Drome with Mary Hales in 1942

Herbert joined the International Skating Union's council in 1925, succeeding George Herbert Fowler as Great Britain's representative in the governing body of international figure skating. He served two terms as the ISU's Vice-President before becoming ISU President in December 1945 when Gerrit van Laer passed away. Under his presidency, the ISU faced the daunting tasks of rebuilding international figure skating after World War II and adapting rules that hadn't been changed in nearly a decade to reflect the evolution of figure skating during wartime. Herbert's reign celebrated the successes of skaters like Barbara Ann Scott and Dick Button, reduced the number of compulsory figures from twelve to six and added the discipline of ice dance to the World Championships.

Herbert Clarke presenting awards to Hans Gerschwiler at the 1947 World Championships. Photo courtesy "Skating World" magazine.

Interestingly, during World War II Herbert was involved with the MI6. Michael Booker recalled that in the early fifties, "H. J. Clarke, had been honored for his services in the secret service during the War... With his cockney accent, [he] didn't have the right credentials to be a member of the [English Style] Royal Skating Club. He was very nice to me and a great pal of Georg Hasler, who also was very nice to me.  Some many years later when I had started collecting porcelain I met H.J´s nephew, Tim Clarke, who was 'the' porcelain expert in UK working for Sotheby's. He had been a member of the Westminster Club and knew Sonja Henie. When she died her will stipulated that he was to sell her belongings and to quote him, 'A lot of junk it was too!'" This wasn't the only example of Herbert's wry wit. On another occasion, he quipped, "If you can't skate your brackets, you can't skate."

Photo courtesy "Skating" magazine

In 1949, Herbert became the first non-American honorary member of the USFSA, a gesture put forth for over twenty-five years of fostering good 'skating relations' between America and Great Britain. That was only one of nearly a dozen such honours. In an issue "Skating World" magazine from 1950, Nigel Brown remarked, "His services to skating and to skaters may best be expressed by the fact that ten nations have nominated him an honorary member of their national associations. Several foreign clubs have nominated him honorary member, including the second oldest club in the world, the Wiener Eislaufverein. This club bestowed a particular honour upon Mr. Clarke during the 1948 Winter Olympics at St. Moritz, when their President presented him with the special badge, 'Ehren Abzeichen', a title given only twenty-seven times in eighty-two years."

At the 1953 ISU Congress in Stresa, Herbert ran for re-election as ISU President, defeating Gustavus H.C. Witt, whom many thought would be his successor. After losing, Witt - then the Vice President for Figure Skating - announced his retirement from the ISU. Dr. James Koch was elected as Witt's replacement. 

Upon returning from Italy to his flat at Fairacres on Roehampton Lane in Wandsworth, Herbert suffered from a heart condition aggravated by bronchitis and pneumonia. That October, he unexpectedly announced his resignation. He was succeeded by Dr. James Koch and two years later elected an Honorary President of the ISU.

Photo courtesy National Archives Of Poland

Herbert passed away on September 5, 1956 at The Putney Hospital, leaving the entirety of his sixty-seven thousand pound estate to his lawyer and a clerk at the London Stock Exchange. He was inducted to the World Figure Skating Hall Of Fame posthumously in 1996, the same year as Brian Boitano and Sheldon Galbraith. His competition and NSA test medals are among the collections of the World Figure Skating Museum in Colorado Springs.

Skate Guard is a blog dedicated to preserving the rich, colourful and fascinating history of figure skating and archives hundreds of compelling features and interviews in a searchable format for readers worldwide. Though there never has been nor will there be a charge for access to these resources, you taking the time to 'like' on the blog's Facebook page at http://www.facebook.com/SkateGuard would be so very much appreciated. Already 'liking'? Consider sharing this feature for others via social media. It would make all the difference in the blog reaching a wider audience. Have a question or comment regarding anything you have read here or have a suggestion for a topic related to figure skating history you would like to see covered? I'd love to hear from you! Learn the many ways you can reach out at http://skateguard1.blogspot.ca/p/contact.html.

The 1933 European Figure Skating Championships


They reclined in parlours with their reading glasses, cup of tea and Agatha Christie's new Poirot mystery "Peril at End House" and cut up a rug to Ethel Waters' rendition of Irving Berlin's new hit song "Heat Wave". The year was 1933 and cautious optimism was in the damp winter air. Great Britain was slowly starting to show signs of recovery from the Stock Market Crash of 1929 in New York which sparked a global economic recession that left thousands in England unemployed.


On January 30 of that year, the same day Germans witnessed Adolf Hitler being sworn in by German President Paul von Hindenburg as Chancellor of Germany, many of Europe's top figure skaters gathered at the Westminster Ice Club in London for the first day of the first European Championships in history held in England. Let's take a look back at how things played out!


THE PAIRS COMPETITION

Olympic Gold Medallists Andrée (Joly) and Pierre Brunet opted not to enter, essentially making the competition a two-way race between two Austrian pairs - Idi Papez and Karl Zwack and Lilly (Scholz) Gaillard and Willy Petter. Gaillard had won an Olympic silver medal with her former partner Otto Kaiser and finished second with Petter the previous year at the European Championships, but had lost that year's Austrian title to Papez and Zwack, who won the bronze at Europeans the year prior. 


Four judges placed Papez and Zwack first, while the Austrian judge tied them with their teammates Gaillard and Petter. Mollie Phillips and Rodney Murdoch were unanimously third, defeating Violet (Supple) and Leslie Cliff of Bournemouth and Mrs. and A. Proctor Burman of Manchester. The "Wiener Sporttagblatt" noted, "The equivalence of both Viennese couples made the smallest mistakes crucial... The circumstance [set up a scenario] where the two rivals [might] demolish [each other] but it was not like that. Both couples were in top form [and skated] at full speed. The effect was gorgeous.... In Vienna, the supporters of the couples have formed two camps - by the way just as in London - and it was somewhat surprising [the judges] put Papez-Zwack in first place... Maybe their success in the Austrian championship increased their confidence."

THE MEN'S COMPETITION


As in the pairs event, there were only five entries - probably owing to the fact that the event was held in England less than three weeks before the World Championships in Zürich. It would have made more sense to some to arrive early in Switzerland and train in St. Moritz or Davos in the weeks leading up to Worlds. As expected, Olympic Gold Medallist Karl Schäfer won the figures by a wide margin, but not unanimously. German judge Artur Vieregg voted for the lone German man competing, Ernst Baier, who placed second. Erich Erdös of Austria, Jean Henrion of France and William M. Clunie of Great Britain rounded out the five man field. In the free skate - and overall - Schäfer, Baier and Erdös were placed unanimously first, second and third - one of the few instances during that period that a panel was able to agree on something!

Ernst Baier's silver medal from the 1933 European Championships

The "Wiener Sporttagblatt" noted, " Karl Schäfer would not have even needed to skate to his peak, but he actually had one of his greatest days. He was quite faultless. Every second, every one movement and jump made his presence felt... This time he even surprised his friends. His beautiful and easygoing attitude, his calm and general mastery has a counterpart, and that is Sonja [Henie]. With the nonchalance of his difficult program and its compelling structure [he] withstood the sharpest criticism... The Berliner's Baier's compulsory exercises were almost a fiesta of mistakes and his freestyle did not yield the difficulties of Schäfer's but was quite effectively [put together]. Despite his youth, Erdös has already connected himself with the international master class.  It is noteworthy that the Berliner had a pleasing, Viennese soft - but almost too feminine - style and that [Erdös] had a powerfully male style."

THE WOMEN'S COMPETITION

Left: Sonja Henie. Right: Cecilia Colledge.

To the surprise of absolutely no one, then two time Olympic Gold Medallist Sonja Henie dominated the competition from start to finish, placing unanimously first in both figures and free skating. The
"Wiener Sporttagblatt" noted that she was "nervous but well-controlled in the compulsory exercises but in the freestyle her pirouettes were racing, their stopping more precise than anyone else. The Axel she landed and her zigzag steps were so lightning fast that she swirled over the ice."



In the figures, three judges had twelve year old Cecilia Colledge second. Hilde Holovsky and Fritzi Burger received the other two second place ordinals. Colledge's success was considered quite the shock as she had placed only eighth the previous year's Olympics and World Championships. In the free skate, the Austrian judge tied Holovsky with Henie. With thirteen ordinal placings, Colledge took the silver. Burger and Holovsky tied in ordinal placings but Burger was awarded the bronze based on her point total. Belgium's Yvonne de Ligne and Austria's Liselotte Landbeck rounded out the top six. Colledge, who skating on home ice received even more applause than Henie, made history as the first British woman to medal at the European Championships.


The marks of the British judge were highly out of line with the other judges. He had Gweneth Butler, the British skater who placed ninth, third in the figures. The Austrian and Norwegian judges had her seventh and ninth. Not to be accused of national bias, he was the only judge to place Cecilia Colledge down in fourth in the free skate! The British judge also placed Hilde Holovsky ninth in figures, while the Austrian and Norwegian judges had her in the top three. 


Interestingly, it was at the Westminster Ice Club that Cecilia Colledge had first seen Sonja Henie skate, when she was only seven years old. The day after the event concluded, a reporter from the "Daily Mirror" went to go visit her at home. They found her sitting in front of the fire surrounded by her dolls. She told them, "I wasn't a bit excited when I took my turn yesterday. I had been practising on another rink about a quarter of an hour before I had to go on, so I didn't really have time to get nervous. Tomorrow we are going back to Switzerland, where I have been since Christmas. I came home only for a few days so that I could compete in the championship." 

THE WALTZING COMPETITION

Twenty-one years before the first official European Championships in ice dancing, an international waltzing competition was a popular conclusion to the Championships in London. Competitors skated in a circular pattern around chairs placed on the ice. The top three couples were Ethel Muckelt and Ronald D. Gilbey, Violet Supple and Leslie Cliff and Betty Meakin and Jackie Dunn. Muckelt, the Cliff's and Dunn would all represent at Great Britain at the Olympics.

Skate Guard is a blog dedicated to preserving the rich, colourful and fascinating history of figure skating and archives hundreds of compelling features and interviews in a searchable format for readers worldwide. Though there never has been nor will there be a charge for access to these resources, you taking the time to 'like' on the blog's Facebook page at http://www.facebook.com/SkateGuard would be so very much appreciated. Already 'liking'? Consider sharing this feature for others via social media. It would make all the difference in the blog reaching a wider audience. Have a question or comment regarding anything you have read here or have a suggestion for a topic related to figure skating history you would like to see covered? I'd love to hear from you! Learn the many ways you can reach out at http://skateguard1.blogspot.ca/p/contact.html.

WCKY In Cincinnati: The Joan Hyldoft Story

Photo courtesy "The National Ice Skating Guide"

"If I didn't get good grades, my father would make me stop skating. I skate because I love it, and when I see people in the audience enjoying my work, it gives me pleasure." - Joan Hyldoft, "New York Post", August 23, 1946

The daughter of Inga (Johnson) and Ewald Andreas Hyldoft, Johanne Christine 'Joan' Hyldoft was born January 27, 1926 in Lindsborg, Kansas. Like many of the tiny city's residents, the Hyldoft's had Scandinavian ties. Joan's paternal grandparents were from Denmark; her maternal grandparents from Norway. Her grandfather Andreas was a well-respected watchmaker. Her parents were both school teachers. Joan got her first taste of the spotlight when she was only fourteen months old. She was selected as 'the healthiest baby' over five hundred other infants at a contest held at the Texas Cotton Palace exposition.

Joan took up ballet at the age of nine and continued with her dance lessons when her family moved to Huntington, West Virginia, where her father had secured a job teaching biology at a local high school. It was soon discovered that Joan's talents extended far beyond the dance floor. She won a blue ribbon at Huntington's famous horse show, took the state diving trophy and drew praise for her organ playing at the local Lutheran church.

At the age of fourteen, Joan took to the ice for the first time at Huntington's indoor rink after watching one of Sonja Henie's films. An onlooker told her parents she was a natural and the next year, she was sent to train with Gustave Lussi at the Lake Placid summer school. She shared the ice with a very young Dick Button and soon drew praise for the height of her Axel jump and the speed of her camel spin. In an age where surety and elegance were foremost in the minds of many young 'lady skaters', Joan had youth and athleticism on her side.

Soon, skating took over. Joan and her mother moved into an apartment in Philadelphia. While attending the Baldwin School for Girls at Bryn Mawr, Joan practiced daily at the Philadelphia Skating Club and Humane Society. "I'd skate from 6 until 9 o'clock each morning, go to classes during the day, skate from 5 o'clock in the afternoon until 9 at night."

Joan Hyldoft, David T. Layman Jr., Dorothy Goos and Mabel MacPherson at the 1942 Eastern States Championships. Photo courtesy "Skating" magazine.

In January of 1942, she took the gold in the novice women's class at the Eastern States Championships at Iceland in New York City. Her victory was quite incredible considering the fact she'd only been skating for two years and there were thirty-three entries - an absolutely unheard of number in those days. Among the young women she defeated were Lois Waring, Eileen Seigh and Irene Maguire - all future U.S. senior medallists. Disappointingly, Joan placed a disastrous ninth in the novice women's event at the U.S. Championships that followed in Chicago. It would be her final competition on skates... technically.


Joan turned professional at the age of fifteen after being offered a job skating at the Netherland Plaza hotel's ice show in Cincinnati. While in the Queen City, she entered WCKY radio's Miss Cincinnati pageant. She took first prize, defeating one hundred and twenty-four other young women with a show-stopping talent number - a skating performance on 'muck' (artificial) ice. It was perhaps the first time in American history that figure skating was performed in a beauty contest or pageant. As the winner, she was sent to Atlantic City to compete in the finals of Miss America. Things didn't go quite as smoothly with Joan's talent act in New Jersey. Depending on the source you read, one of two things happened. Either the sun baked the muck ice turning it into a syrupy consistency you couldn't skate on or "just before Joan was to go on, the 300-pound stage manager stepped on the ice and fell, breaking it into hundreds of pieces". Either way, Joan's skating act was a bust but 'the show must go on' mentality kicked in. She performed her skating number (minus the ice) on the floorboards of the Warner Theater's stage and took a prize in the preliminary round.

Photo courtesy "McCall's" magazine

Over the next several years, Joan performed for thousands of dinner guests at the hotel 'icers' that were hugely popular during and in the aftermath of World War II. Before she even turned twenty, she was capturing hearts at the Iridium Room at the the Hotel Stevens in Chicago and half a dozen New York venues - the Hotel New Yorker, Biltmore Hotel, Center Theatre and Roxy Theatre. She even appeared in an ad for Pepsident toothpaste.

Jinx Clark, Rudy Richards, Joan Hyldoft, Mickey Meehan, Genevieve Norris and Bob Payne in the 1953 Holiday On Ice tour

In the late forties, Joan joined the cast of Holiday On Ice, where she wowed audiences in both solo and pair acts in shows across North America. Most remarkable was the fact that while skating professionally, Joan took pre-med classes at New York, Columbia and Illinois State Universities and Marshall College in Huntington. She aspired to be a brain specialist. In 1952, she told reporter Henry W. Clune, "I have wanted to be a brain surgeon since I was a girl in my early teens. I have wanted to be a brain surgeon since I was allowed to witness an operation for the removal of a brain tumor in a Philadelphia hospital... It seemed terribly important."

Photo courtesy "The National Ice Skating Guide"

Ultimately, skating won out over school and what was intended to be a short stint as a professional turned out to be a decade-long career. After a brief stint performing in a British ice pantomime, she returned to Holiday On Ice in 1959, joining Dick Button on a historic skating tour behind the Iron Curtain in Soviet Russia.


Joan retired from professional skating in the early sixties, sidelined by a recurring back injury. She found a job teaching skating at the Iceland rink in Houston, Texas and married Tommy Harral, a local drama teacher's son, in October of 1961. The marriage didn't last. She settled in Waco, took a job as a part-time secretary and became involved in the First Lutheran Church. For a short time, she taught skating in Waco as well. She passed away on August 25, 1986 at the age of sixty, her skating stardom in the forties and fifties all but forgotten.

Skate Guard is a blog dedicated to preserving the rich, colourful and fascinating history of figure skating and archives hundreds of compelling features and interviews in a searchable format for readers worldwide. Though there never has been nor will there be a charge for access to these resources, you taking the time to 'like' the blog's Facebook page at http://www.facebook.com/SkateGuard would be so very much appreciated. Already 'liking'? Consider sharing this feature for others via social media. It would make all the difference in the blog reaching a wider audience. Have a question or comment regarding anything you have read here? Have a suggestion for a topic related to figure skating history you would like to see covered? I'd love to hear from you! Learn the many ways you can reach out at http://skateguard1.blogspot.ca/p/contact.html.

A Selection Of Scandinavian Stars

A group of Norwegian figure skaters in 1907. Photo courtesy Norsk Folkemuseum.

In the first half of the twentieth century, talented athletes from Scandinavian countries dominated the world's figure skating scene. Sonja HenieGillis Grafström, Ulrich Salchow and Magda (Mauroy) Julin all won Olympic gold medals and the skating clubs of Stockholm, Oslo, Copenhagen and Helsinki all played host to international skating competitions where defining moments in the sport's history played out. In today's blog, we'll look back on the stories of some forgotten Scandinavian skating stars who rose to prominence during this period.

RANDI BAKKE AND CHRISTEN CHRISTENSEN


Born less than a month apart in the autumn of 1904, Randi Bakke and Christen Christensen learned to skate at the Oslo Skøiteklub and rose to prominence as one of Norway's top pairs teams in the twenties and thirties. They placed a disappointing last in their first appearance at the World Championships in 1923 but went on to win an incredible eight consecutive Norwegian pairs titles from 1929 to 1936. In Stockholm in 1931, they became the second pair in history from their country to win a medal at the World Championships. They retired in 1936, after placing a disastrous fifteenth at the Winter Olympic Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Christen served on the board of the Norges Skøyteforbund for nearly a decade, ran a radio shop in Oslo and passed away on June 2, 1969 at the age of sixty-four. Randi married and moved to Nesodden, where she passed away on on May 21, 1984 at the age of seventy-nine.

HILKKA AND EDVARD LINNA

Photo courtesy National Board Of Antiquities - Muscat

Born August 25, 1886 in Mikkeli, then part of Russian Finland, Edvard Ferdinand Linna first rose to prominence as a gymnast, winning the bronze medal in the men's team event at the 1908 Summer Olympic Games in London, England. In the roaring twenties, he won the Finnish pairs title as a figure skater three times with Olga Saario, who had once skated with Walter Jakobsson.

Edvard served as the chairman of Suomen Taitoluisteluliitto and on the board of the Finnish Olympic Committee and won the Finnish pairs title in 1938 and 1939, skating with his daughter Hilkka, who was born on September 24, 1919. In the fifties, Edvard and his wife Ingeborg's other daughters Kirsti and Riitta took turns winning the Finnish women's title.

Hilkka passed away on July 10, 1956 at the age of thirty-seven; Edvard died on December 30, 1974 at the age of eighty-eight. Though they never competed at the European or World Championships, the Linna's held the distinction of being one of the very few father/daughter teams to win a national title.

ALICE KRAYENBÜHL

Photo courtesy Sveriges Centralförening för Idrottens Främjande Archive

The daughter of Fanny (Thiele) and Jean Charles Valdemar Krayenbühl, Alice Johanne Krayenbühl was born January 28, 1895 in Frederiksberg, Sweden. She grew up in Copenhagen and her father was a civil engineer. An athletic young woman, Alice was perhaps better known for her prowess on the tennis courts in the summer than on the ice in the winter. She dominated the Danish sporting scene from 1915 to 1920, winning seven back-to-back national titles in indoor and outdoor tennis.

Photo courtesy Danmarks Tekniske Universitet

As a skater, Alice represented Denmark at the Nordic Games and was her country's champion in 1917, 1922 and 1924. She likely would have won more titles had the weather not forced the cancellation of the Danish Championships several times during this period. While competing, Alice was a student at the College Of Advanced Technology, today known as the Technical University Of Denmark. She graduated in 1922 and found work at the Laboratory of Mortar, Glass and Ceramics. She married composer and music historian Knud Jeppesen in 1923.

Alice's granddaughter Nina Frederike Jeppesen Edin explained, "My grandmother Alice Krayenbühl... was employed at the Laboratory of Mortar, Glass and Ceramics at the same university for about ten years. About 1932 she got tuberculosis. She was in a sanatorium for several months (I think almost a year) and I think that put a stop to her sports as well as her career. After that she (in addition to raising a son) devoted her time and resources to helping my grandfather in his career as a professor in musicology and composer. They lived for longer periods in Italy, where she helped him take microphotographs of manuscripts from libraries in Firenze and the Vatican. She was also quite a good painter and artist. When my grandfather died in 1974, she took up many of these interests." Alice passed away on January 19, 1987 at the age of ninety-one.

THE PALM FAMILY

In the first half of the twentieth century, no family arguably made a greater impact on figure skating in Sweden than the Palm's. Hildour and Johanna (Hagström) Palm hailed from the medieval agricultural parish of Kvillinge, north of Norrköping, in Östergötland. Hildour was a stonework engineer by trade and the snowy, somewhat remote area where he raised his family proved the idyllic backdrop for a family of winter sports enthusiasts.

Hildour and Johanna Palm had at least six children, all of which took up the sport of figure skating in their youth. Gunvor, born September 22, 1904 and Solvig, born January 18, 1906, were by accounts fine skaters. Gunnar, born December 27, 1901 and Henry, born in 1897, served as board members at the Stockholms Allmänna Skridskoklubb, the home base of skating legends like Ulrich Salchow and Gillis Grafström. Gunnar, an artist by trade, served as a judge at the 1939 World Championships.

The skating career of Anders Palm, born May 27, 1900, spanned nearly two decades. Paired with Margit (Edlund) Josephson, he won his first of three Swedish pairs titles in 1926 and his last in 1935. The couple twice represented Sweden at the World Championships but had the unfortunate distinction of placing dead last on both occasions.

Helfrid and Agard Palm. Photos courtesy Sveriges Centralförening för Idrottens Främjande Archive.

The most famous of the skating siblings were Helfrid (Palm) Berghagen, born July 9, 1891, and Agard Palm, born October 23, 1892. Helfrid and Agard began their skating career in the late Edwardian era and won the Swedish pair title five times consecutively from 1915 to 1919. Had the World Championships not been cancelled for the duration of the Great War, they would have certainly been medal contenders.

Helfrid and Agard Palm. Photos courtesy Sveriges Centralförening för Idrottens Främjande Archive.

Helfrid and Agard claimed the Swedish pairs title for a sixth and final time in 1922, defeating Elna Henrikson and Kaj af Ekström - who went on to win the bronze medal at the World Championships in 1923 and 1924. During the Great War, Agard penned the popular book "Konståkning på skridskor". Though mainly instructional, the book also touched on figure skating's history and included a copy of the ISU's rules at the time. Late in his skating career, Agard also served on the board of the Stockholms Allmänna Skridskoklubb. He passed away in 1969 at the age of sixty-nine, leaving behind a wife and two children.

Skate Guard is a blog dedicated to preserving the rich, colourful and fascinating history of figure skating and archives hundreds of compelling features and interviews in a searchable format for readers worldwide. Though there never has been nor will there be a charge for access to these resources, you taking the time to 'like' the blog's Facebook page at http://www.facebook.com/SkateGuard would be so very much appreciated. Already 'liking'? Consider sharing this feature for others via social media. It would make all the difference in the blog reaching a wider audience. Have a question or comment regarding anything you have read here? Have a suggestion for a topic related to figure skating history you would like to see covered? I'd love to hear from you! Learn the many ways you can reach out at http://skateguard1.blogspot.ca/p/contact.html.jkhj

Does Success As A Junior Translate To Success As A Senior?

Alexandr Fadeev won the World Junior title in France in 1980 and made history as the first man to translate a win at the World Junior Championships to a win at the World Championships five years later in Japan

Does success as a junior translate to success as a senior? There's absolutely no 'one size fits all' answer to this question but taking a look back through skating history reveals some interesting facts about how skaters who have won the World Junior Championships have fared later in their careers.

Today we'll take a look at how all of the past winners at the World Junior Championships have fared when they competed in the World Championships. While these results don't take into account 'surprise' Olympic medal wins by skaters who never placed in the top five at the Worlds like Adelina Sonitkova and Paul Wylie, they do reveal some interesting facts. In singles skating, for instance, fifteen women who won the World junior title never competed at the senior Worlds as compared to nine men. However, twenty-two World titles were won by women who also won the World Junior title, as compared to thirteen men.

Ilia Kulik's winning performance from the 1995 World Junior Championships

Rudy Galindo and Kristi Yamaguchi were the only pair that won the World junior title to both win medals at the World Championships as singles skaters. Only four pairs, Barbara Underhill and Paul Martini, Ekaterina Gordeeva and Sergei Grinkov, Wenjing Sui and Cong Han and Anastasia Mishina and Aleksandr Galliamov, have won both junior and senior World titles together. However, five other skaters who won the World junior title in pairs, Maxim Trankov, Maria Petrova, Anton Sikharulidze, Ingo Steuer and Aliona Savchenko were World Champions as seniors with different partners. 

Ekaterina Gordeeva and Sergei Grinkov


Only two ice dance teams have won World junior and senior titles together - Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir and Oksana Domnina and Maxim Shabalin. Marina Anissina and Ilya Averbukh won the World Junior Championships twice and were both World Champions with different partners. Madison Chock and Evan Bates both won World junior titles with different partners. Their best finishes as seniors at the World Championships with those partners was ninth in both cases, in successive years.

Dennis Coi

WORLD JUNIOR CHAMPIONS - MEN

Year

World Junior Champions

Best Result At World Championships

1976

Mark Cockerell

8th in 1985

1977

Daniel Béland

Did not compete at World Championships

1978

Dennis Coi

Did not compete at World Championships

1979

Vitali Egorov

Did not compete at World Championships

1980

Alexandr Fadeev

1st in 1985

1981

Paul Wylie

9th in 1988

1982

Scott Williams

9th in 1986

1983

Christopher Bowman

2nd in 1989

1984

Viktor Petrenko

1st in 1992

1985

Erik Larson

Did not compete at World Championships

1986

Vladimir Petrenko

10th in 1988

1987

Rudy Galindo

3rd in 1996

1988

Todd Eldredge

1st in 1996

1989

Viacheslav Zagorodniuk

3rd in 1994

1990

Igor Pashkevich

8th in 1997

1991

Vasili Eremenko

13th in 1995

1992

Dmitri Dmitrenko

11th in 1999

1993

Evgeny Pliuta

9th in 1998

1994

Michael Weiss

3rd in 1999 and 2000

1995

Ilia Kulik

2nd in 1996

1996

Alexei Yagudin

1st in 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2002

1997

Evgeni Plushenko

1st in 2001, 2003 and 2004

1998

Derrick Delmore

Did not compete at World Championships

1999

Ilia Klimkin

9th in 2003

2000

Stefan Lindemann

3rd in 2004

2001

Johnny Weir

3rd in 2008

2002

Daisuke Takahashi

1st in 2010

2003

Alexander Shubin

Did not compete at World Championships

2004

Andrei Griazev

11th in 2005

2005

Nobunari Oda

4th in 2006

2006

Takahiko Kozuka

2nd in 2011

2007

Stephen Carriere

10th in 2008

2008

Adam Rippon

6th in 2010 and 2016

2009

Adam Rippon

6th in 2010 and 2016

2010

Yuzuru Hanyu

1st in 2014 and 2017

2011

Andrei Rogozine

13th in 2013

2012

Han Yan

7th in 2014

2013

Joshua Farris

11th in 2015

2014

Nam Nguyen

5th in 2015

2015

Shoma Uno

2nd in 2017 and 2018

2016

Daniel Samohin

20th in 2018

2017

Vincent Zhou

3rd in 2019

2018

Alexey Erokhov

Did not compete at World Championships

2019

Tomoki Hiwatashi

Did not compete at World Championships

2020

Andrei Mozalev

Did not compete at World Championships


Laetitia Hubert

WORLD JUNIOR CHAMPIONS - WOMEN


Year

World Junior Champions

Best Result At World Championships

1976

Suzie Brasher

Did not compete at World Championships

1977

Carolyn Skoczen

Did not compete at World Championships

1978

Jill Sawyer

Did not compete at World Championships

1979

Elaine Zayak

1st in 1982

1980

Rosalynn Sumners

1st in 1983

1981

Tiffany Chin

3rd in 1985 and 1986

1982

Janina Wirth

11th in 1983

1983

Simone Koch

8th in 1988

1984

Karin Hendschke

Did not compete at World Championships

1985

Tatiana Andreeva

Did not compete at World Championships

1986

Natalia Gorbenko

8th in 1989

1987

Cindy Bortz

Did not compete at World Championships

1988

Kristi Yamaguchi

1st in 1991 and 1992

1989

Jessica Mills

Did not compete at World Championships

1990

Yuka Sato

1st in 1994

1991

Surya Bonaly

2nd in 1993, 1994 and 1995

1992

Laetitia Hubert

4th in 1992 and 1998

1993

Kumiko Koiwai

16th in 1995

1994

Michelle Kwan

1st in 1996, 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2003

1995

Irina Slutskaya

1st in 2002 and 2005

1996

Elena Ivanova

Did not compete at World Championships

1997

Sydne Vogel

Did not compete at World Championships

1998

Julia Soldatova

3rd in 1999

1999

Daria Timoshenko

29th in 2004

2000

Jennifer Kirk

17th in 2005

2001

Kristina Oblasova

Did not compete at World Championships

2002

Ann Patrice McDonough

Did not compete at World Championships

2003

Yukina Ota

Did not compete at World Championships

2004

Miki Ando

1st in 2007 and 2011

2005

Mao Asada

1st in 2008, 2010 and 2014

2006

Yuna Kim

1st in 2009 and 2013

2007

Caroline Zhang

Did not compete at World Championships

2008

Rachael Flatt

5th in 2009

2009

Alena Leonova

2nd in 2012

2010

Kanako Murakami

4th in 2013

2011

Adelina Sotnikova

9th in 2013

2012

Julia Lipnitskaia

2nd in 2014

2013

Elena Radionova

3rd in 2015

2014

Elena Radionova

3rd in 2015

2015

Evgenia Medvedeva

1st in 2016 and 2017

2016

Marin Honda

Did not compete at World Championships

2017

Alina Zagitova

1st in 2019

2018

Alexandra Trusova

3rd in 2021

2019

Alexandra Trusova

3rd in 2021

2020

Kamila Valieva

Did not compete at World Championships


Sherri Baier and Robin Cowan

WORLD JUNIOR CHAMPIONS - PAIRS


Year

World Junior Champions

Best Result At World Championships

1976

Sherri Baier and Robin Cowan

10th in 1997

1977

Josée France and Paul Mills

Did not compete at World Championships

1978

Barbara Underhill and Paul Martini

1st in 1984

1979

Veronika Pershina and Marat Akbarov

5th in 1983

1980

Larisa Selezneva and Oleg Makarov

2nd in 1985

1981

Larisa Selezneva and Oleg Makarov

2nd in 1985

1982

Marina Avstriyskaya and Yuri Kvashnin

Did not compete at World Championships

1983

Marina Avstriyskaya and Yuri Kvashnin

Did not compete at World Championships

1984

Manuela Landgraf and Ingo Steuer

8th in 1995 (Ingo - 1st in 1997)

1985

Ekaterina Gordeeva and Sergei Grinkov

1st in 1986, 1987, 1989 and 1990

1986

Elena Leonova and Gennadi Krasnitski

Did not compete at World Championships

1987

Elena Leonova and Gennadi Krasnitski

Did not compete at World Championships

1988

Kristi Yamaguchi and Rudy Galindo

5th in 1989 and 1990 (Kristi – 1st in 1991 and 1992 women's, Rudy - 3rd in 1996 men's)

1989

Ekaterina Chernyshova and Dmitri Sukhanov

Did not compete together at World Championships (Dmitri – 15th in 1993)

1990

Natalia Krestianinova and Alexei Torchinski

13th in 1994

1991

Natalia Krestianinova and Alexei Torchinski

13th in 1994

1992

Natalia Krestianinova and Alexei Torchinski

13th in 1994

1993

Inga Korshunova and Dmitri Saveliev

Did not compete at World Championships

1994

Maria Petrova and Anton Sikharulidze

6th in 1995 (Maria - 1st in 2000, Anton - 1st in 1998 and 1999)

1995

Maria Petrova and Anton Sikharulidze

6th in 1995 (Maria - 1st in 2000, Anton - 1st in 1998 and 1999)

1996

Victoria Maxiuta and Vladislav Zhovnirski

Did not compete at World Championships

1997

Danielle and Steven Hartsell

10th in 1999

1998

Yulia Obertas and Dmitri Palamarchuk

11th in 1999 (Yulia – 5th in 2005)

1999

Yulia Obertas and Dmitri Palamarchuk

11th in 1999 (Yulia – 5th in 2005)

2000

Aliona Savchenko and Stanislav Morozov

9th in 2001 (Aliona - 1st in 2008, 2009, 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2018, Stanislav - 4th in 2007)

2001

Dan and Hao Zhang

2nd in 2006, 2008 and 2009

2002

Elena Riabchuk and Stanislav Zakharov

Did not compete at World Championships

2003

Dan and Hao Zhang

2nd in 2006, 2008 and 2009

2004

Natalia Shestakova and Pavel Lebedev

Did not compete at World Championships

2005

Maria Mukhortova and Maxim Trankov

4th in 2010 (Maxim - 1st in 2013)

2006

Julia Vlassov and Drew Meekins

Did not compete at World Championships

2007

Keauna McLaughlin and Rockne Brubaker

11th in 2009 (Rockne - 10th in 2010)

2008

Ksenia Krasilnikova and Konstantin Bezmaternikh

Did not compete at World Championships

2009

Lubov Ilyushechkina and Nodari Maisuradze

Did not compete together at World Championships (Lubov - 6th in 2017, Nodari - 8th in 2014)

2010

Wenjing Sui and Cong Han

1st in 2017 and 2019

2011

Wenjing Sui and Cong Han

1st in 2017 and 2019

2012

Wenjing Sui and Cong Han

1st in 2017 and 2019

2013

Haven Denney and Brandon Frazier

12th in 2015 (Brandon - 7th in 2021)

2014

Xiaoyu Yu and Yang Jin

Did not compete together at World Championships (Xiaoyu - 4th in 2017, Yang - 4th in 2019)

2015

Xiaoyu Yu and Yang Jin

Did not compete together at World Championships (Xiaoyu - 4th in 2017, Yang - 4th in 2019)

2016

Anna Dušková and Martin Bidař

11th in 2018

2017

Ekaterina Alexandrovskaya and Harley Windsor

16th in 2017 and 2018

2018

Daria Pavliuchenko and Denis Khodykin

Did not compete at World Championships

2019

Anastasia Mishina and Aleksandr Galliamov

1st in 2021

2020

Apollinariia Panfilova and Dmitry Rylov

Did not compete at World Championships

Tatiana Durasova and Sergei Ponomarenko

WORLD JUNIOR CHAMPIONS - ICE DANCE


Year

World Junior Champions

Best Result At World Championships

1976

Kathryn Winter and Nicky Slater

Did not compete together at World Championships (Nicky - 5th in 1983 and 1984)

1977

Wendy Sessions and Mark Reed

Did not compete together at World Championships (Wendy - 11th in 1981)

1978

Tatiana Durasova and Sergei Ponomarenko

Did not compete together at World Championships (Sergei - 1st in 1989, 1990 and 1992)

1979

Tatiana Durasova and Sergei Ponomarenko

Did not compete together at World Championships (Sergei - 1st in 1989, 1990 and 1992)

1980

Elena Batanova and Alexei Soloviev

7th in 1984

1981

Elena Batanova and Alexei Soloviev

7th in 1984

1982

Natalia Annenko and Vadim Karkachev

Did not compete together at World Championships (Natalia - 4th in 1986, 1987 and 1988)

1983

Tatiana Gladkova and Igor Shpilband

Did not compete at World Championships

1984

Elena Krykanova and Evgeni Platov

Did not compete together at World Championships (Evgeni - 1st in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997)

1985

Elena Krykanova and Evgeni Platov

Did not compete together at World Championships (Evgeni - 1st in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997)

1986

Elena Krykanova and Evgeni Platov

Did not compete together at World Championships (Evgeni - 1st in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997)

1987

Ilona Melnichenko and Gennadi Kaskov

Did not compete at World Championships

1988

Oksana Grishuk and Alexandr Chichkov

Did not compete together at World Championships (Oksana - 1st in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997)

1989

Angelika Kirkhmaier and Dmitri Lagutin

Did not compete at World Championships

1990

Marina Anissina and Ilya Averbukh

Did not compete together at World Championships (Marina - 1st in 2000, Ilya - 1st in 2002)

1991

Aliki Stergadiu and Juris Razgulajevs

13th in 1994

1992

Marina Anissina and Ilya Averbukh

Did not compete together at World Championships (Marina - 1st in 2000, Ilya - 1st in 2002)

1993

Ekaterina Svirina and Sergei Sakhnovski

Did not compete together at World Championships (Sergei - 3rd in 2002)

1994

Silwia Nowak and Sebastian Kolasiński

9th in 1999 and 2000

1995

Olga Sharutenko and Dmitri Naumkin

Did not compete at World Championships

1996

Ekaterina Davydova and Roman Kostomarov

Did not compete together at World Championship (Roman - 1st in 2004 and 2005)

1997

Nina Ulanova and Mikhail Stifounin

Did not compete together at World Championship (Mikhail- 18th in 2001)

1998

Jessica Joseph and Charles Butler

25th in 1998

1999

Jamie Silverstein and Justin Pekarek

12th in 2000

2000

Natalia Romaniuta and Daniil Barantsev

16th in 2000

2001

Natalia Romaniuta and Daniil Barantsev

16th in 2000

2002

Tanith Belbin and Benjamin Agosto

2nd in 2005 and 2009

2003

Oksana Domnina and Maxim Shabalin

1st in 2009

2004

Elena Romanovskaya and Alexander Grachev

23rd in 2006

2005

Morgan Matthews and Maxim Zavozin

16th in 2006

2006

Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir

1st in 2010, 2012 and 2017

2007

Ekaterina Bobrova and Dmitri Soloviev

3rd in 2013

2008

Emily Samuelson and Evan Bates

9th in 2010 (Evan - 2nd in 2015)

2009

Madison Chock and Greg Zuerlein

9th in 2011 (Madison - 2nd in 2015)

2010

Elena Ilinykh and Nikita Katsalapov

4th in 2014 (Nikita - 1st in 2021)

2011

Ksenia Monko and Kirill Khaliavin

8th in 2015

2012

Victoria Sinitsina and Ruslan Zhiganshin

7th in 2014 (Victoria - 1st in 2021, Ruslan - 7th in 2015)

2013

Alexandra Stepanova and Ivan Bukin

4th in 2019

2014

Kaitlyn Hawayek and Jean-Luc Baker

9th in 2019 and 2021

2015

Anna Yanovskaya and Sergey Mozgov

Did not compete together at World Championships (Anna - 19th in 2019)

2016

Lorraine McNamara and Quinn Carpenter

Did not compete at World Championships

2017

Rachel and Michael Parsons

Did not compete at World Championships

2018

Anastasia Skoptsova and Kirill Aleshin

Did not compete at World Championships

2019

Marjorie Lajoie and Zachary Lagha

14th in 2021

2020

Avonley Nguyen and Vadym Kolesnik

Did not compete at World Championships

Skate Guard is a blog dedicated to preserving the rich, colourful and fascinating history of figure skating and archives hundreds of compelling features and interviews in a searchable format for readers worldwide. Though there never has been nor will there be a charge for access to these resources, you taking the time to 'like' the blog's Facebook page at http://www.facebook.com/SkateGuard would be so very much appreciated. Already 'liking'? Consider sharing this feature for others via social media. It would make all the difference in the blog reaching a wider audience. Have a question or comment regarding anything you have read here? Have a suggestion for a topic related to figure skating history you would like to see covered? I'd love to hear from you! Learn the many ways you can reach out at http://skateguard1.blogspot.ca/p/contact.html.